of fingerprints from a crime scene can be considered as a counter-forensic fine elegant writing paper act. 4.2.3 Tampering detection independent on the type of forgery Most of the techniques described above take advantage of the knowledge on the kind of forgery that compromised the image. Hence, it is not possible to define the exact boundaries of the tampered regions. To describe the shadow photometric properties the authors use the histograms of shadow matte values computed along the shadow boundary points. A seam is defined to be a monotonic and connected path of pixels including one pixel per row (column) and traversing the image from the top to the bottom (left to the right).

The solution of this standard least squares problem is given by: ( mathbfc left( mathbfHprime mathbfH right) - 1mathbfHprime mathbfy and the restored pattern can be derived by the distorted one as a pre-filtering operation: widehatmathbfy mathbfHleft( left( mathbfHprime mathbfH right) - 1mathbfHprime mathbfy right). In a later work 48 the same authors present a more complex lighting environment model, exploiting spherical harmonics for its representation. In both cases, recovering such characteristic patterns is a strong indication of double compression, and of possible tampering. The author proposes to detect these modifications by considering the image as a graph, where each pixel is a vertex, and to divide it in intensity segments by performing normalized cuts.

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The method is shown to effectively identify four different camera models, although its performance decreases with the increase of compression. Occluding contours consist in those points where an object hides itself from the viewing direction (e.g. This variation can be used to determine the type of camera from which a specific image was obtained. Therefore, this method is not applicable to every digital cameras. Assuming that the objects in the scene are bounded by convex and lambertian surfaces, the light environment is expressed as a function L ( V ) on a sphere, being V a unit vector in cartesian coordinates. Either outdoors or artificially rendered and require manual selection of shadows boundaries. 4 Tampering detection According to the Oxford dictionary 88, the verb to tamper literally means to interfere with something in order to cause damage or make unauthorized alterations. This again fits with Harris definition of counterfeiting counter-forensics, where evidence is replaced with a misleading one. The authors propose to determine pixel police training research paper noise by taking images with black or green background with 12 different cameras and then comparing the defect points which appeared as white. Stamm and others in 86 attempt at covering traces of previous compressions by modifying the distribution of the DCT coefficients before saving the tampering results. As an example, in 92 Wang and others propose a probabilistic analysis of Generalized Benfords Law, which was previously proposed for tampering detection in 36 (cfr. The authors study statistical properties of the image organized into two groups: color-related measurements, such as average pixel value, RGB pairs correlation, neighbor distribution center of mass, energy ratio and wavelet domains statistics, and image quality features.

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