willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands.". Given this, that Hegel offers up his philosophy of history as a theodicy certainly does indicate that he feels it serves as some type of theological culmination or consummation of history, at least, though not an out-and-out end of history per. But are consumerism and technology, as he suggests, really progressive? 32 Did Hegel believe that freedom had attained its fullness in his lifetime, and was explicated by his philosophy? To this day, the work ethic in many Asian countries is sustained not so much by material incentives, as by the recognition provided for work by overlapping social groups, from the family to the nation, on which these societies are based. While this book is informed by recent world events, its subject returns to a very old question: Whether, at the end of the twentieth century, it makes sense for us once again to speak of a coherent and directional History of mankind that will eventually. In this paper, I will deal only with Nietzsche, the earlier of the two. Hegel, Evil, and the End of History. This understanding of History was most closely associated with the great German philosopher.
It is not true that all people are free, but the conditions now exist whereby all can be made free, for example. We in the West have become thoroughly pessimistic with regard to the possibility of overall progress in democratic institutions. "What is happening to us in the early years of the century Badiou writes, is "something that would appear not to have any clear name in any accepted language." Fukuyama himself speculated that the absence of idealism and struggle might yet spark their rekindling: "Perhaps this very.
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Explaining evil in such a way is, of course, the traditional purview of theodicy. My childhood correspondence fills several cardboard boxes, but during the 1990s the paper trail peters out. The most remarkable development of the last quarter of the twentieth century has been the revelation of enormous weaknesses at the core of the worlds seemingly strong dictatorships, whether they be of the military-authoritarian Right, or the communist-totalitarian Left. And this, I think, is the solution to the theodicean problem, though I can only hint at it in this paper; theodicies are backwards-looking, and indulge in what Michael André Bernstein calls backshadowing or the tendency to read back into events our own fears and. I see no reason why not, especially given his few statements about the development of history in the Americas, for example. 18 In case Nietzsches disdain for such philosophy is lost in his wit, he goes on to state clearly, I believe that the manufactured crisis essay there has been no dangerous vacillation or crisis of German culture this century that has not been rendered more dangerous by the enormous. Jacques Derrida, De la Grammatologie (Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit, 1967. Leaderless and programme-light, dissent keeps failing to cohere, fragmenting into online petitions and single-issue campaigns. Hegel claims that it has a lot to do with both. 26 It is this sort of confidence that led Heidegger to identify Hegel as a paradigmatic example of ontotheological metaphysics (Truth here always means that the knowable as such is known with a knowledge which is absolutely certain of itself.) 27 But Heideggers formulation hides.
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